Direct quotation

A direct quotation uses quotations marks around the author’s exact words, and the author’s surname, year of publication and page number must be given. This website uses a version of the Harvard referencing system. It is imperative you use the accepted system for your department and that your use is consistent throughout your essay.

Read the following extract from page 69 of the article below (used with kind permission of the author):

Bibliographical reference:

Broady, Elspeth. (2004). ’Sameness and difference: the challenge of culture in language teaching’. Language Learning Journal, Summer 2004, No 29, 68-72

Cultural awareness, then, is an approach to culture which emphasises not information about a culture but skills in exploring, observing and understanding difference and sameness, and perhaps most centrally, ‘suspension of judgement, i.e. not being instantly critical of other people’s apparently deviant behaviour’ (Tomlinson and Masuhara, 2004:7).

In fact, we should be talking here about crosscultural awareness, because fundamental to this awareness is a more objective and extensive understanding of one’s own culture and particularly, the insight that one’s own culture can appear ‘deviant’ and ‘odd’ to an outsider. So central to promoting cross-cultural awareness is getting learners not only to understand ‘difference’ in the target language culture, but also to explore ways in which what is familiar to them might be experienced as different by others; what Tseng (2002:12) refers to as ‘perspective consciousness’.

Citation in the text of your essay:

Direct quotations must be used in a grammatically correct way. Three dots (...) mean that something has been omitted from the original text. A word in square brackets, such as [since] below, means that the writer of the essay (you) has added to the text for some reason, which in this case was to keep clarity after deleting a few words.

According to Broady (2004, p.69), cultural awareness is “an approach to culture which emphasises not information about a culture but skills in exploring, observing and understanding difference and sameness”. She goes further by highlighting the necessity of objectivity in the “extensive understanding of one’s own culture ... [since] one’s own culture can appear ‘deviant’ and ‘odd’ to an outsider”. Broady suggests the term “crosscultural awareness” here (2004, p69).

Longer quotations of more than three lines should be indented as a separate paragraph without quotation marks, typed single lined spaced only, with a colon after the introductory words. The citation should be right-aligned, as below.

According to Broady, we should use the term:

crosscultural awareness, because fundamental to this awareness is a more objective and extensive understanding of one’s own culture and particularly, the insight that one’s own culture can appear ‘deviant’ and ‘odd’ to an outsider. So central to promoting cross-cultural awareness is getting learners not only to understand ‘difference’ in the target language culture, but also to explore ways in which what is familiar to them might be experienced as different by others ...

(Broady, 2004, p.69)